标准库头文件 <algorithm>

来自cppreference.com
< cpp‎ | header

此头文件是算法库的一部分。

目录

[编辑] 函数

不修改序列的操作
(C++11)
(C++11)
(C++11)
检查一定范围之内,是否全部、存在或不存在元素使得谓词为true
(函数模板) [编辑]
将一个函数应用于某一范围的元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
返回满足指定判别的元素数
(函数模板) [编辑]
查找两个范围第一个不同元素的位置
(函数模板) [编辑]
确定两个元素集合是否是相同的
(函数模板) [编辑]
查找满足特定条件的第一个元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
查找一定范围内最后出现的元素序列
(函数模板) [编辑]
查找元素集合中的任意元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
查找彼此相邻的两个相同(或其它的关系)的元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
查找一个元素区间
(函数模板) [编辑]
在区间中搜索连续一定数目次出现的元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
修改序列的操作
将某一范围的元素复制到一个新的位置
(函数模板) [编辑]
(C++11)
复制一定数目的元素到新的位置
(函数模板) [编辑]
按从后往前的顺序复制一个范围内的元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
(C++11)
将某一范围的元素移动到一个新的位置
(函数模板) [编辑]
按从后往前的顺序移动某一范围的元素到新的位置
(函数模板) [编辑]
将一个值赋给一个范围内的元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
将一个值赋给一定数目的元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
将一个函数应用于某一范围的元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
赋值相继的函数调用结果给范围中的每个元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
赋值相继的函数调用结果给范围中的 N 个元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
移除满足特定标准的元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
复制一个范围内不满足特定条件的元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
将所有满足特定条件的元素替换为另一个值
(函数模板) [编辑]
复制一个范围内的元素,并将满足特定条件的元素替换为另一个值
(函数模板) [编辑]
交换两个对象的值
(函数模板) [编辑]
交换两个范围的元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
交换两个迭代器所指向的元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
将区间内的元素颠倒顺序
(函数模板) [编辑]
将区间内的元素颠倒顺序并复制
(函数模板) [编辑]
将区间内的元素旋转
(函数模板) [编辑]
将区间内的元素旋转并复制
(函数模板) [编辑]
将范围内的元素随机重新排序
(函数模板) [编辑]
删除区间内连续重复的元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
删除区间内连续重复的元素并复制
(函数模板) [编辑]
划分操作
判断区间是否被给定的谓词划分
(函数模板) [编辑]
把一个区间的元素分为两组
(函数模板) [编辑]
将区间内的元素分为两组复制到不同位置
(函数模板) [编辑]
将元素分为两组,同时保留其相对顺序
(函数模板) [编辑]
定位已划分的区域的划分点
(函数模板) [编辑]
排序操作
(C++11)
检查区间元素是否按升序排列
(函数模板) [编辑]
找出最大的已排序子范围
(函数模板) [编辑]
将区间按升序排序
(函数模板) [编辑]
将区间内较小的N个元素排序
(函数模板) [编辑]
对区间内的元素进行复制并部分排序
(函数模板) [编辑]
将区间内的元素排序,同时保持相等的元素之间的顺序
(函数模板) [编辑]
将给定的区间部分排序,确保区间被给定的元素划分
(函数模板) [编辑]
二分搜索操作(在已排序范围上)
返回指向第一个不小于给定值的元素的迭代器
(函数模板) [编辑]
返回指向第一个大于给定值的元素的迭代器
(函数模板) [编辑]
判断一个元素是否在区间内
(函数模板) [编辑]
返回匹配特定键值的元素区间
(函数模板) [编辑]
集合操作(在已排序范围上)
合并两个已排序的区间
(函数模板) [编辑]
就地合并两个有序的区间
(函数模板) [编辑]
如果一个集合是另外一个集合的子集则返回true
(函数模板) [编辑]
计算两个集合的差集
(函数模板) [编辑]
计算两个集合的交集
(函数模板) [编辑]
计算两个集合的对称差
(函数模板) [编辑]
计算两个集合的并集
(函数模板) [编辑]
堆操作
检查给定的区间是否为一个堆
(函数模板) [编辑]
查找区间中为堆的最大子区间
(函数模板) [编辑]
根据区间内的元素创建出一个堆
(函数模板) [编辑]
将元素加入到堆
(函数模板) [编辑]
将堆中的最大元素删除
(函数模板) [编辑]
将堆变成一个排好序的区间
(函数模板) [编辑]
最小/最大操作
(C++17)
在一对边界值间夹住一个值
(函数模板) [编辑]
返回两个元素中的较大者
(函数模板) [编辑]
返回区间内的最大元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
返回两个元素中的较小者
(函数模板) [编辑]
返回区间内的最小元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
(C++11)
返回两个元素中的的较大者和较小者
(函数模板) [编辑]
返回区间内的最小元素和最大元素
(函数模板) [编辑]
如果按字典顺序一个区间小于另一个区间,返回true
(函数模板) [编辑]
判断一个序列是否为另一个序列的排列组合
(函数模板) [编辑]
按字典顺序产生区间内元素下一个较大的排列组合
(函数模板) [编辑]
按字典顺序产生区间内元素下一个较小的排列组合
(函数模板) [编辑]

[编辑] 概要

#include <initializer_list>
namespace std
{
    // 不修改序列的操作:
    template <class InputIterator, class Predicate>
        bool all_of(InputIterator first, InputIterator last, Predicate pred);
    template <class InputIterator, class Predicate>
        bool any_of(InputIterator first, InputIterator last, Predicate pred);
    template <class InputIterator, class Predicate>
        bool none_of(InputIterator first, InputIterator last, Predicate pred);
 
    template<class InputIterator, class Function>
        Function for_each(InputIterator first, InputIterator last, Function f);
 
    template<class InputIterator, class T>
        InputIterator find(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
                           const T& value);
    template<class InputIterator, class Predicate>
        InputIterator find_if(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
                              Predicate pred);
    template<class InputIterator, class Predicate>
        InputIterator find_if_not(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
                                  Predicate pred);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2>
        ForwardIterator1
        find_end(ForwardIterator1 first1, ForwardIterator1 last1,
                 ForwardIterator2 first2, ForwardIterator2 last2);
    template<class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2,
             class BinaryPredicate>
        ForwardIterator1
        find_end(ForwardIterator1 first1, ForwardIterator1 last1,
                 ForwardIterator2 first2, ForwardIterator2 last2,
                 BinaryPredicate pred);
 
    template<class InputIterator, class ForwardIterator>
        InputIterator
        find_first_of(InputIterator first1, InputIterator last1,
                      ForwardIterator first2, ForwardIterator last2);
    template<class InputIterator, class ForwardIterator,
             class BinaryPredicate>
        InputIterator
        find_first_of(InputIterator first1, InputIterator last1,
                      ForwardIterator first2, ForwardIterator last2,
                      BinaryPredicate pred);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator>
        ForwardIterator adjacent_find(ForwardIterator first,
                                      ForwardIterator last);
    template<class ForwardIterator, class BinaryPredicate>
        ForwardIterator adjacent_find(ForwardIterator first,
                                      ForwardIterator last,
                                      BinaryPredicate pred);
    template<class InputIterator, class T>
        typename iterator_traits<InputIterator>::difference_type
        count(InputIterator first, InputIterator last, const T& value);
    template<class InputIterator, class Predicate>
        typename iterator_traits<InputIterator>::difference_type
        count_if(InputIterator first, InputIterator last, Predicate pred);
 
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2>
        pair<InputIterator1, InputIterator2>
        mismatch(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
                 InputIterator2 first2);
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class BinaryPredicate>
        pair<InputIterator1, InputIterator2>
        mismatch(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
                 InputIterator2 first2, BinaryPredicate pred);
 
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2>
        bool equal(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
                   InputIterator2 first2);
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class BinaryPredicate>
        bool equal(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
                   InputIterator2 first2, BinaryPredicate pred);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2>
        bool is_permutation(ForwardIterator1 first1, ForwardIterator1 last1,
                            ForwardIterator2 first2);
    template<class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2,
    class BinaryPredicate>
        bool is_permutation(ForwardIterator1 first1, ForwardIterator1 last1,
                            ForwardIterator2 first2, BinaryPredicate pred);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2>
        ForwardIterator1 search(
            ForwardIterator1 first1, ForwardIterator1 last1,
            ForwardIterator2 first2, ForwardIterator2 last2);
    template<class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2,
             class BinaryPredicate>
        ForwardIterator1 search(
            ForwardIterator1 first1, ForwardIterator1 last1,
            ForwardIterator2 first2, ForwardIterator2 last2,
            BinaryPredicate pred);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator, class Size, class T>
        ForwardIterator search_n(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                                 Size count, const T& value);
    template<class ForwardIterator, class Size, class T, class BinaryPredicate>
        ForwardIterator1 search_n(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                                  Size count, const T& value,
                                  BinaryPredicate pred);
 
    // 修改序列的操作:
 
    // 复制:
    template<class InputIterator, class OutputIterator>
        OutputIterator copy(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
                            OutputIterator result);
    template<class InputIterator, class Size, class OutputIterator>
        OutputIterator copy_n(InputIterator first, Size n,
                              OutputIterator result);
    template<class InputIterator, class OutputIterator, class Predicate>
        OutputIterator copy_if(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
                               OutputIterator result, Predicate pred);
    template<class BidirectionalIterator1, class BidirectionalIterator2>
        BidirectionalIterator2 copy_backward(
            BidirectionalIterator1 first, BidirectionalIterator1 last,
            BidirectionalIterator2 result);
 
    // 移动:
    template<class InputIterator, class OutputIterator>
        OutputIterator move(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
                            OutputIterator result);
    template<class BidirectionalIterator1, class BidirectionalIterator2>
        BidirectionalIterator2 move_backward(
            BidirectionalIterator1 first, BidirectionalIterator1 last,
            BidirectionalIterator2 result);
 
    // 交换:
    template<class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2>
        ForwardIterator2 swap_ranges(ForwardIterator1 first1,
                                     ForwardIterator1 last1, ForwardIterator2 first2);
    template<class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2>
        void iter_swap(ForwardIterator1 a, ForwardIterator2 b);
    template<class InputIterator, class OutputIterator, class UnaryOperation>
        OutputIterator transform(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
                                 OutputIterator result, UnaryOperation op);
 
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator,
             class BinaryOperation>
        OutputIterator transform(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
                                 InputIterator2 first2, OutputIterator result,
                                 BinaryOperation binary_op);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator, class T>
        void replace(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                     const T& old_value, const T& new_value);
    template<class ForwardIterator, class Predicate, class T>
        void replace_if(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                        Predicate pred, const T& new_value);
    template<class InputIterator, class OutputIterator, class T>
        OutputIterator replace_copy(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
                                    OutputIterator result,
                                    const T& old_value, const T& new_value);
    template<class InputIterator, class OutputIterator, class Predicate, class T>
        OutputIterator replace_copy_if(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
                                       OutputIterator result,
                                       Predicate pred, const T& new_value);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator, class T>
        void fill(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last, const T& value);
    template<class OutputIterator, class Size, class T>
        OutputIterator fill_n(OutputIterator first, Size n, const T& value);
    template<class ForwardIterator, class Generator>
        void generate(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                      Generator gen);
    template<class OutputIterator, class Size, class Generator>
        OutputIterator generate_n(OutputIterator first, Size n, Generator gen);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator, class T>
        ForwardIterator remove(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                               const T& value);
    template<class ForwardIterator, class Predicate>
        ForwardIterator remove_if(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                                  Predicate pred);
    template<class InputIterator, class OutputIterator, class T>
        OutputIterator remove_copy(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
                                   OutputIterator result, const T& value);
    template<class InputIterator, class OutputIterator, class Predicate>
        OutputIterator remove_copy_if(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
                                      OutputIterator result, Predicate pred);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator>
        ForwardIterator unique(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last);
    template<class ForwardIterator, class BinaryPredicate>
        ForwardIterator unique(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                               BinaryPredicate pred);
    template<class InputIterator, class OutputIterator>
        OutputIterator unique_copy(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
                                   OutputIterator result);
    template<class InputIterator, class OutputIterator, class BinaryPredicate>
        OutputIterator unique_copy(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
                                   OutputIterator result, BinaryPredicate pred);
 
    template<class BidirectionalIterator>
        void reverse(BidirectionalIterator first, BidirectionalIterator last);
    template<class BidirectionalIterator, class OutputIterator>
        OutputIterator reverse_copy(BidirectionalIterator first,
                                    BidirectionalIterator last,
                                    OutputIterator result);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator>
        ForwardIterator rotate(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator middle,
                               ForwardIterator last);
    template<class ForwardIterator, class OutputIterator>
        OutputIterator rotate_copy(
            ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator middle,
            ForwardIterator last, OutputIterator result);
 
    template<class RandomAccessIterator>
        void random_shuffle(RandomAccessIterator first,
                            RandomAccessIterator last);
    template<class RandomAccessIterator, class RandomNumberGenerator>
        void random_shuffle(RandomAccessIterator first,
                            RandomAccessIterator last,
                            RandomNumberGenerator&& rand);
    template<class RandomAccessIterator, class UniformRandomNumberGenerator>
        void shuffle(RandomAccessIterator first,
                     RandomAccessIterator last,
                     UniformRandomNumberGenerator&& rand);
 
    // 划分:
    template <class InputIterator, class Predicate>
        bool is_partitioned(InputIterator first, InputIterator last, Predicate pred);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator, class Predicate>
        ForwardIterator partition(ForwardIterator first,
                                  ForwardIterator last,
                                  Predicate pred);
 
    template<class BidirectionalIterator, class Predicate>
        BidirectionalIterator stable_partition(BidirectionalIterator first,
                                               BidirectionalIterator last,
                                               Predicate pred);
 
    template <class InputIterator, class OutputIterator1,
              class OutputIterator2, class Predicate>
        pair<OutputIterator1, OutputIterator2>
        partition_copy(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
                       OutputIterator1 out_true, OutputIterator2 out_false,
                       Predicate pred);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator, class Predicate>
        ForwardIterator partition_point(ForwardIterator first,
                                        ForwardIterator last,
                                        Predicate pred);
 
    // 排序与关系操作:
 
    // 排序:
    template<class RandomAccessIterator>
        void sort(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last);
    template<class RandomAccessIterator, class Compare>
        void sort(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last,
                  Compare comp);
 
    template<class RandomAccessIterator>
        void stable_sort(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last);
    template<class RandomAccessIterator, class Compare>
        void stable_sort(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last,
                         Compare comp);
 
    template<class RandomAccessIterator>
        void partial_sort(RandomAccessIterator first,
                          RandomAccessIterator middle,
                          RandomAccessIterator last);
    template<class RandomAccessIterator, class Compare>
        void partial_sort(RandomAccessIterator first,
                          RandomAccessIterator middle,
                          RandomAccessIterator last, Compare comp);
    template<class InputIterator, class RandomAccessIterator>
        RandomAccessIterator partial_sort_copy(
            InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
            RandomAccessIterator result_first,
            RandomAccessIterator result_last);
    template<class InputIterator, class RandomAccessIterator, class Compare>
        RandomAccessIterator partial_sort_copy(
            InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
            RandomAccessIterator result_first,
            RandomAccessIterator result_last,
            Compare comp);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator>
        bool is_sorted(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last);
    template<class ForwardIterator, class Compare>
        bool is_sorted(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                       Compare comp);
    template<class ForwardIterator>
        ForwardIterator is_sorted_until(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last);
    template<class ForwardIterator, class Compare>
        ForwardIterator is_sorted_until(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                                        Compare comp);
 
    template<class RandomAccessIterator>
        void nth_element(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator nth,
                         RandomAccessIterator last);
    template<class RandomAccessIterator, class Compare>
        void nth_element(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator nth,
                         RandomAccessIterator last, Compare comp);
    // 二分搜索:
    template<class ForwardIterator, class T>
        ForwardIterator lower_bound(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                                    const T& value);
    template<class ForwardIterator, class T, class Compare>
        ForwardIterator lower_bound(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                                    const T& value, Compare comp);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator, class T>
        ForwardIterator upper_bound(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                                    const T& value);
    template<class ForwardIterator, class T, class Compare>
        ForwardIterator upper_bound(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                                    const T& value, Compare comp);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator, class T>
        pair<ForwardIterator, ForwardIterator>
        equal_range(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                    const T& value);
    template<class ForwardIterator, class T, class Compare>
        pair<ForwardIterator, ForwardIterator>
        equal_range(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                    const T& value, Compare comp);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator, class T>
        bool binary_search(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                           const T& value);
    template<class ForwardIterator, class T, class Compare>
        bool binary_search(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                           const T& value, Compare comp);
 
    // 归并:
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator>
        OutputIterator merge(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
                             InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2,
                             OutputIterator result);
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator,
            class Compare>
        OutputIterator merge(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
                             InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2,
                             OutputIterator result, Compare comp);
 
    template<class BidirectionalIterator>
        void inplace_merge(BidirectionalIterator first,
                           BidirectionalIterator middle,
                           BidirectionalIterator last);
    template<class BidirectionalIterator, class Compare>
        void inplace_merge(BidirectionalIterator first,
                           BidirectionalIterator middle,
                           BidirectionalIterator last, Compare comp);
 
    // 集合操作:
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2>
        bool includes(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
                      InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2);
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class Compare>
        bool includes(
            InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
            InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2, Compare comp);
 
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator>
        OutputIterator set_union(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
                                 InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2,
                                 OutputIterator result);
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator,
             class Compare>
        OutputIterator set_union(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
                                 InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2,
                                 OutputIterator result, Compare comp);
 
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator>
        OutputIterator set_intersection(
            InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
            InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2,
            OutputIterator result);
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator,
             class Compare>
        OutputIterator set_intersection(
            InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
            InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2,
            OutputIterator result, Compare comp);
 
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator>
        OutputIterator set_difference(
            InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
            InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2,
            OutputIterator result);
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator,
             class Compare>
        OutputIterator set_difference(
            InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
            InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2,
            OutputIterator result, Compare comp);
 
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator>
        OutputIterator set_symmetric_difference(
            InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
            InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2,
            OutputIterator result);
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator,
             class Compare>
        OutputIterator set_symmetric_difference(
            InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
            InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2,
            OutputIterator result, Compare comp);
 
    // 堆操作:
    template<class RandomAccessIterator>
        void push_heap(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last);
    template<class RandomAccessIterator, class Compare>
        void push_heap(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last,
                       Compare comp);
    template<class RandomAccessIterator>
        void pop_heap(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last);
    template<class RandomAccessIterator, class Compare>
        void pop_heap(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last,
                      Compare comp);
 
    template<class RandomAccessIterator>
        void make_heap(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last);
    template<class RandomAccessIterator, class Compare>
        void make_heap(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last,
                       Compare comp);
 
    template<class RandomAccessIterator>
        void sort_heap(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last);
    template<class RandomAccessIterator, class Compare>
        void sort_heap(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last,
                       Compare comp);
 
    template<class RandomAccessIterator>
        bool is_heap(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last);
    template<class RandomAccessIterator, class Compare>
        bool is_heap(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last, Compare comp);
    template<class RandomAccessIterator>
        RandomAccessIterator 
            is_heap_until(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last);
    template<class RandomAccessIterator, class Compare>
        RandomAccessIterator 
            is_heap_until(RandomAccessIterator first, RandomAccessIterator last,
                                           Compare comp);
 
    // 最小与最大:
    template<class T> const T& min(const T& a, const T& b);
    template<class T, class Compare>
        const T& min(const T& a, const T& b, Compare comp);
    template<class T>
        T min(initializer_list<T> t);
    template<class T, class Compare>
        T min(initializer_list<T> t, Compare comp);
 
    template<class T> const T& max(const T& a, const T& b);
    template<class T, class Compare>
        const T& max(const T& a, const T& b, Compare comp);
    template<class T>
        T max(initializer_list<T> t);
    template<class T, class Compare>
        T max(initializer_list<T> t, Compare comp);
 
    template<class T> pair<const T&, const T&> minmax(const T& a, const T& b);
    template<class T, class Compare>
        pair<const T&, const T&> minmax(const T& a, const T& b, Compare comp);
    template<class T>
        pair<T, T> minmax(initializer_list<T> t);
    template<class T, class Compare>
        pair<T, T> minmax(initializer_list<T> t, Compare comp);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator>
        ForwardIterator min_element(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last);
    template<class ForwardIterator, class Compare>
        ForwardIterator min_element(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                                    Compare comp);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator>
        ForwardIterator max_element(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last);
    template<class ForwardIterator, class Compare>
        ForwardIterator max_element(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last,
                                    Compare comp);
 
    template<class ForwardIterator>
        pair<ForwardIterator, ForwardIterator>
        minmax_element(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last);
    template<class ForwardIterator, class Compare>
        pair<ForwardIterator, ForwardIterator>
        minmax_element(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last, Compare comp);
 
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2>
        bool lexicographical_compare(
            InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
            InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2);
    template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class Compare>
        bool lexicographical_compare(
            InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1,
            InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2,
            Compare comp);
 
    // 排列:
    template<class BidirectionalIterator>
        bool next_permutation(BidirectionalIterator first,
                              BidirectionalIterator last);
    template<class BidirectionalIterator, class Compare>
        bool next_permutation(BidirectionalIterator first,
                              BidirectionalIterator last, Compare comp);
 
    template<class BidirectionalIterator>
        bool prev_permutation(BidirectionalIterator first,
                              BidirectionalIterator last);
    template<class BidirectionalIterator, class Compare>
        bool prev_permutation(BidirectionalIterator first,
                              BidirectionalIterator last, Compare comp);
}